Prefixos

Já há um tempinho fizemos um post sobre ENGLISH SUFFIXES. E claro, precisamos também explicar direitinho quais e como usar também os PREFIXES. Seguem quais são os mais comuns deles.

Fore-: antes de
Este prefixo pode ser usado para falar que você viu alguma coisa antes que todo mundo, por exemplo, usando a palavra foresee, que traduzindo significa prever. Já para falar de previsão do futuro, você pode usar a palavra foresight.

in-, im-, ir-: não
Nesse caso, são três opções de prefixo, porém com o mesmo significado, que é não. Por exemplo, para falar que algo está incorreto, você a palavra correct (correto) com o prefixo in. Então, ficaria incorrect.  impossible (impossível) e irregular (irregular)

mid-: meio
Esse prefixo é pra falar das horas, por exemplo, meio-dia, meia-noite/ midday, mid-night…e até mesmo para outras palavras que usam meio, como por exemplo, meio de campo, que seria midfield.

anti
Uso: Oposição, contra
Palavras: antiseptic, antibiotic, antivirus etc

Prefixo: auto-
Uso: Próprio, do mesmo
Palavras: autopilot, autobiography, automobile etc

Prefixo: co-
Uso: Junto, com
Palavras: co-pilot, co-worker, co-author etc

Prefixo: de-
Uso: Oposto
Palavras: deactivate (desativar), deduce (deduzir), decaffeinated (descafeinado) etc

Prefixo: dis-
Uso: Indica negativa, contrário/oposto de algo
Palavras: disagree (discordar), disappear (desaparecer), disapprove (desaprovar) etc

Prefixo: em-, en-
Uso: Incorporar, adicionar, cobrir com, causa
Palavras: embrace (incluir, adotar, aproveitar), enclose (fechar, cercar), embed (embutir) etc

Prefixo: ex-
Uso: Anterior, antigo, de dentro
Palavras: ex-president, exhale (exalar), ex-husband (ex-marido) etc

Prefixo: fore-
Uso: Antes de
Palavras: forecast (previsão), forehead (testa, fronte), foresee (prever) etc

Prefixo: il-, im-, in-, ir-
Uso: Não, indica negativa
Palavras: impossible, illegal, irresponsible etc

Prefixo: inter-
Uso: Entre
Palavras: intersect (dividir, cruzar), interstellar, intervene (intervir, interferir) etc

macro–
Grande, notável. Palavras: macrocosm, macromolecule, macroeconomics etc

micro–
Pequeno. Palavras: microscope, microcosm, microbe etc

mid–
Meio. Palavras: midway (meio do caminho), midfielder (meio-campista), midday (meio-dia) etc

mis–
Incorreto. Palavras: misfire (falha de detonação de explosivo ou ignição de motor), mistake (erro, engano), misunderstand (mal-entendido, interpretar mal) etc

non–
Não, sem. Palavras: nonsense (bobagem, besteira), nonexistent (inexistente), nonstop (sem parar) etc

Prefixo: pre-
Uso: Antes
Palavras: predetermine, pre-intermediate, preschool (pré-escola) etc

re–
De novo, novamente. Palavras: return (retornar), reiterate (reiterar), redo (refazer) etc

sub-
Uso: abaixo de, inferior
Palavras: submerge (submergir), sub-category, subtitle (legenda), etc

super–
Acima de, superior. Palavras: superstar (astro), supernatural (sobrenatural), superior etc

trans–
Através de. Palavras: transport, transcript (transcrito) etc

un–
Não, indica negativa. Palavras: unfinished (não acabado/terminado), unacceptable (inaceitável), unhappy (infeliz) etc

 

 

https://www.myenglishteacher.eu/blog/prefixes-suffixes-list/
https://pt.scribd.com/doc/50598996/Word-Formation

Compounding
Compounding forms a word out of two or more root morphemes. The words are calledcompounds or compound words.In Linguistics, compounds can be either native or borrowed.Native English roots are typically free morphemes, so that means compounds are made out of independent words that can occur by themselves. Examples:
mailman
(composed of free root
mail
and free root
man
)
mail carrier fireplacefireplug

fire hydrant
Note that compounds are written in various ways in English: with a space between the elements;with a hyphen between the elements; or simply with the two roots run together with noseparation. The way the word is written does not affect its status as a compound. In Greek andLatin, on the other hand, roots do not typically stand alone. So compounds are composed of bound roots. Compounds formed in English from borrowed Latin and Greek morphemespreserve this characteristic. Examples include
photograph
,
iatrogenic
, and many thousands of other classical words.There are a number of subtypes of compounds, and they are not mutually exclusive.
Rhyming compounds
These words are compounded from two rhyming words. Examples:
lovey-doveychiller-killer
There are words that are formally very similar to rhyming compounds, but are not quitecompounds in English because the second element is not really a word–it is just a nonsense itemadded to a root word to form a rhyme. Examples:
higgledy-piggledytootsie-wootsie
This formation process is associated in English with child talk (and talk addressed to children).Examples:
bunnie-wunnieHenny Pennysnuggly-wuggly
Another word type that looks a bit like rhyming compounds comprises words that are formed of two elements that almost match, but differ in their vowels. Again, the second element is typicallya nonsense form:
pitter-patter zigzag tick-tock riffraff flipflop
Derivation
Deriviation is the creation of words by modification of a root without the addition of other roots. Often the effect is a change in part of speech.Subtype of Derivation:
Affixation
The most common type of derivation is the addition of one or more affixes to a root, as in theword
derivation
itself. This process is called affixation, a term which covers both prefixation andsuffixation.
Blending
Blending is one of the most beloved of word formation processes in English. It is especiallycreative in that speakers take two words and merge them based not on morpheme structure buton sound structure. The resulting words are called blends.Usually in word formation we combine roots or affixes along their edges: one morpheme comesto an end before the next one starts. For example, we form
derivation
out of the sequence of morphemes de+riv+at(e)+ion. One morpheme follows the next and each one has identifiableboundaries. The morphemes do not overlap.But in blending, part of one word is stitched onto another word, without any regard for whereone morpheme ends and another begins. For example, the word
swooshtika
‘Nike swoosh as alogo symbolizing corporate power and hegemony’ was formed from
swoosh
and
swastika
. The
swoosh
part remains whole and recognizable in the blend, but the
tika
part is not a morpheme,either in the word
swastika
or in the blend. The blend is a perfect merger of form, and also of content. The meaning contains an implicit analogy between the
swastika
and the
swoosh
, andthus conceptually blends them into one new kind of thing having properties of both, but alsocombined properties of neither source. Other examples include
glitterati
(blending
glitter
and
literati
) ‘Hollywood social set’,
mockumentary
(
mock
and
documentary
) ‘spoof documentary’.

 


Fontes:
http://www.inglesonline.com.br/gramatica-basica-resumida/os-prefixos-e-sufixos-em-ingles/

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