Grammar

PRONOUNS: saiba quais são eles e como usá-los

 Oh my God! Só de ler essa palavra – PRONOUS – você já suou frio e quis fugir do post?  “” ‘’ –

Pronomes são palavras usadas para substituir uma palavra substantiva completa, ou seja, em vez de dizer o que a coisa ou quem a pessoa é, usamos os pronouns. Existem muitos tipos de pronomes. Confira a seguir cada tipo, com explicações e exemplos para você entender tudinho!

 

What Is a Pronoun?
Pronouns make up a small subcategory of nouns. The distinguishing characteristic of pronouns is that they can be substituted for other nouns. For instance, if you’re telling a story about your sister Sarah, the story will begin to sound repetitive if you keep repeating “Sarah” over and over again.

Sarah has always loved fashion. Sarah announced that Sarah wants to go to fashion school.
You could try to mix it up by sometimes referring to Sarah as “my sister,” but then it sounds like you’re referring to two different people.

Sarah has always loved fashion. My sister announced that Sarah wants to go to fashion school.
Instead, you can use the pronouns she and her to refer to Sarah.

Sarah has always loved fashion. She announced that she wants to go to fashion school.
Personal Pronouns
There are a few different types of pronouns, and some pronouns belong to more than one category. She and her are known as personal pronouns. The other personal pronouns are I and me, you, he and him, it, we and us, and they and them. If you learned about pronouns in school, these are probably the words your teacher focused on. We’ll get to the other types of pronouns in a moment.

Antecedents
Pronouns are versatile. The pronoun it can refer to just about anything: a bike, a tree, a movie, a feeling. That’s why you need an antecedent. An antecedent is a noun or noun phrase that you mention at the beginning of a sentence or story and later replace with a pronoun. In the examples below, the antecedent is highlighted and the pronoun that replaces it is bolded.

My family drives me nuts, but I love them. The sign was too far away for Henry to read it. Sarah said she is almost finished with the application.
In some cases, the antecedent doesn’t need to be mentioned explicitly, as long as the context is totally clear. It’s usually clear who the pronouns I, me, and you refer to based on who is speaking.

It’s also possible to use a pronoun before you mention the antecedent, but try to avoid doing it in long or complex sentences because it can make the sentence hard to follow.

I love them, but my family drives me nuts.
Relative Pronouns
Relative pronouns make up another class of pronouns. They are used to connect relative clauses to independent clauses. Often, they introduce additional information about something mentioned in the sentence. Relative pronouns include that, what, which, who, and whom. Traditionally, who refers to people, and which and that refer to animals or things.

The woman who called earlier didn’t leave a message. All the dogs that got adopted today will be loved. My car , which is nearly twenty years old, still runs well.
Whether you need commas with who, which, and that depends on whether the clause is restrictive or nonrestrictive.

Who vs. Whom—Subject and Object Pronouns
Now that we’ve talked about relative pronouns, let’s tackle the one that causes the most confusion: who vs. whom. Who is a subject pronoun, like I, he, she, we, and they. Whom is an object pronoun, like me, him, her, us and them. When the pronoun is the object of a verb or preposition, the object form is the one you want. Most people don’t have much trouble with the objective case of personal pronouns because they usually come immediately after the verb or preposition that modifies it.

Please mail it to I.
Please mail it to me.
Ms. Higgins caught they passing notes.
Ms. Higgins caught them passing notes.
Is this cake for we?
Is this cake for us?
Whom is trickier, though, because it usually comes before the verb or preposition that modifies it.

Whom did you speak to earlier?
A man, whom I have never seen before, was asking about you.
Whom should I say is calling?
One way to test whether you need who or whom is to try substituting a personal pronoun. Find the place where the personal pronoun would normally go and see whether the subject or object form makes more sense.

Who/whom did you speak to earlier? Did you speak to he/him earlier?

A man, whom I have never seen before, was asking about you. Have I seen he/him before?

Whom should I say is calling? Should I say she/her is calling?

If the object pronoun (him or her) sounds right, use whom. If the subject pronoun (he or she) sounds right, use who.

Before we move on, there’s one more case where the choice between subject and object pronouns can be confusing. Can you spot the problem in the sentences below?

Henry is meeting Sarah and I this afternoon. There are no secrets between you and I. It doesn’t matter to him or I.
In each of the sentences above, the pronoun I should be me. If you remove the other name or pronoun from the sentence, it becomes obvious.

Henry is meeting I this afternoon. No one keeps secrets from I. It doesn’t matter to I.
Demonstrative Pronouns
That, this, these and those are demonstrative pronouns. They take the place of a noun or noun phrase that has already been mentioned.

This is used for singular items that are nearby. These is used for multiple items that are nearby. The distance can be physical or metaphorical.

Here is a letter with no return address. Who could have sent this? What a fantastic idea! This is the best thing I’ve heard all day. If you think gardenias smell nice, try smelling these.
That is used for singular items that are far away. Those is used for multiple items that are far away. Again, the distance can be physical or metaphorical.

A house like that would be a nice place to live. Some new flavors of soda came in last week. Why don’t you try some of those? Those aren’t swans, they’re geese.
Indefinite Pronouns
Indefinite pronouns are used when you need to refer to a person or thing that doesn’t need to be specifically identified. Some common indefinite pronouns are one, other, none, some, anybody, everybody, and no one.

Everybody was late to work because of the traffic jam. It matters more to some than others. Nobody knows the trouble I’ve seen.
When indefinite pronouns function as subjects of a sentence or clause, they usually take singular verbs.

Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns
Reflexive pronouns end in -self or -selves: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves.

Use a reflexive pronoun when both the subject and object of a verb refer to the same person or thing.

Henry cursed himself for his poor eyesight. They booked themselves a room at the resort. I told myself it was nothing.
Intensive pronouns look the same as reflexive pronouns, but their purpose is different. Intensive pronouns add emphasis.

I built this house myself. Did you yourself see Loretta spill the coffee?
“I built this house” and “I built this house myself” mean almost the same thing. But “myself” emphasizes that I personally built the house—I didn’t hire someone else to do it for me. Likewise, “Did you see Loretta spill the coffee?” and “Did you yourself see Loretta spill the coffee?” have similar meanings. But “yourself” makes it clear that the person asking wants to know whether you actually witnessed the incident or whether you only heard it described by someone else.

Occasionally, people are tempted to use myself where they should use me because it sounds a little fancier. Don’t fall into that trap! If you use a -self form of a pronoun, make sure it matches one of the uses above.

Please call Sarah or myself if you are going to be late. Loretta, Henry, and myself are pleased to welcome you to the neighborhood.
Possessive Pronouns
Possessive pronouns come in two flavors: limiting and absolute. My, your, its, his, her, our, their and whose are used to show that something belongs to an antecedent.

Sarah is working on her application. Just put me back on my bike. The students practiced their presentation after school.
The absolute possessive pronouns are mine, yours, his, hers, ours, and theirs. The absolute forms can be substituted for the thing that belongs to the antecedent.

Are you finished with your application? Sarah already finished hers. The blue bike is mine. I practiced my speech and the students practiced theirs.
Some possessive pronouns are easy to mix up with similar-looking contractions. Remember, possessive personal pronouns don’t include apostrophes.

Interrogative Pronouns
Interrogative pronouns are used in questions. The interrogative pronouns are who, what, which, and whose.

Who wants a bag of jelly beans? What is your name? Which movie do you want to watch? Whose jacket is this?

 

 

 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

Esses pronomes equivalem aos nossos Pronomes Pessoais do Caso Reto – que nome grande! Eles nada mais são do que

English clauses always have a subject, except for the imperative.
Play it again please.
São duas horas. It’s half past two.
Roubaram meu carro! Someone stole my car!
Há uma reunião aqui está noite. There is a meeting here this evening.
Está nevando It’s snowing.

We use you to talk about people in general including the speaker and the hearer:

You can buy this book anywhere > This book is on sale everywhere.

We use they or them to talk about people in general, especially about the government and the authorities:

They serve good food here.
Ask them for a cheaper ticket.
They don’t let you smoke in here.

 

OBJECT PRONOUNS 

We use he/him to refer to men, and she/her to refer to women. When we are not sure if we are talking about a man or a woman we use they/them.
This is Jack. He’s my brother. I don’t think you have met him.This is Angela. She’s my sister. Have you met her before?Talk to a friend. Ask them to help you.You could go to a doctor. They might help you.
Subject pronounsWe use subject pronouns as subject of the verb:
I like your dress.You are late.He is my friendIt is rainingShe is on holidayWe live in England.They come from London.

Object pronouns We use object pronouns:
• as the object of the verb:
Can you help me please?I can see you.She doesn’t like him.I saw her in town today.We saw them in town yesterday, but they didn’t see us.
• after prepositions:
She is waiting for me.I’ll get it for you.Give it to him.Why are you looking at her?Don’t take it from us.I’ll speak to them.

 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

 

 

Possessive Adjectives e Possessive Case

 

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

 

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

 

 

Pronouns: personal (I, me, you, him, it, they, etc.)
from English Grammar Today
We use personal pronouns in place of noun phrases. We often use them to refer back to people and things that we have already identified (underlined):

Peter complained to the chef about the meal. She wasn’t very helpful so he spoke to the manager. (she = the chef, he = Peter)

A:
Where’s the knife? I can’t find it.

B:
It’s in the drawer. (it = the knife)

Personal pronouns show person and number. He, she, him and her show gender. They have different subject and object forms (except you, it and one which have only one form):

subject

object

number

gender

person

I

me

singular

first

you

you

singular or plural

second

he

him

singular

masculine

third

she

her

singular

feminine

third

it

it

singular

third

we

us

plural

first

they

them

plural

third

one

one

generic

third
Subject and object pronouns
Personal subject pronouns act as the subject of a clause. We use them before a verb to show who is doing the verb. We do not usually leave out the pronoun:

She loves playing basketball.

Not: … loves playing basketball.

They don’t finish the lesson until four o’clock.

It’s getting late.

We use personal object pronouns in all other positions, such as after the verb or after a preposition:

Paula’s coming to visit us in September. (us = object)

Thanks again for everything you did for me. (for me = prepositional phrase)

We also use personal object pronouns as complements of the verb be:

That’s him. That’s the man I was talking about. (him = complement of be)

We can use some object pronouns (me, him, her, us and them) as short answers, particularly in informal speaking:

A:
Who ate all the biscuits?

B:
Me. (or more formally: I did.)
I, me
We use I and me to refer to the speaker or writer. I is the subject form and me is the object form:

I can’t come on Friday. I’m working.

I am writing to apply for the position of …

Helen asked me to get some milk.

It’s me. Can you open the door? I haven’t got my key. (It is I. is not often used. It is very formal.)

Spoken English:
We sometimes hear me used as a subject in informal speaking after another subject + and:

My friends and me went on holiday to a little town on the south coast. (or Me and my friends went on holiday …; My friends and I went … is considered to be more correct.)

We sometimes use us to refer to me in informal speaking:

Pass us an orange, will you?
You
We use you to refer to the listener or reader. It is both the subject and the object form. You can refer to one person or more than one person. It is usually clear from the context whether you is singular or plural:

Paul, do you need any help? (refers to one person, Paul)

[coach to team]

The match starts at 10.30. I need you to be here at 10. (refers to a group of people)

We sometimes use you all to address everyone in a group:

What would you all like to eat?

In informal contexts, we also use you to refer to people in general, not someone specific:

You get a pension if you’re a man over the age of 65 or a woman over 60.
He, him; she, her
He, him, she and her are singular third person pronouns. He and him are the masculine forms. She and her are the feminine forms:

A:
Have you seen Johnny Roberts recently?

B:
Yes I saw him in town last week. He’s looking really well.

She didn’t like the way he spoke to her.

Traditionally, he and him were used to refer to both genders in formal writing:

If anyone has any evidence to oppose this view, let him inform the police immediately.

Nowadays, we often see gender neutral forms (e.g. he or she, he/she, s/he, (s)he, they and him or her, him/her, them) when we do not know if the person referred to is male or female:

The bank manager could help with your problem. He or she will probably be able to give you a loan. (or … he/she will probably be able to … or … they will probably be able to …)

Go to a hairdresser. Ask him or her to come up with a style that suits you, your hair, your lifestyle. (or … ask him/her to come up with a style … or … ask them to come up with a style …)

When you get into the building, go to the person on the desk in the reception area. They can tell you where to go. (or He or she can tell you where to go.)

See also:

One

Sexist language
It
We use it to refer to things:

My computer isn’t working. It’s crashed again. Can you have a look at it?

We use it as an empty pronoun, also known as a ‘dummy’ subject, where there is no other subject to put in the subject position, particularly when referring to the weather or time:

It’s so lovely to see you.

It’s already ten o’clock.

It’s snowing.

We usually use it to refer to countries, vehicles and machines. In some traditional styles, she was sometimes used, but this is now considered inappropriate by many people:

We spent three weeks in Malaysia. It’s a beautiful country.

Three hours after the ship sailed, it developed engine trouble. (or, more traditionally: … she developed engine trouble.)

See also:

Subjects

It

Sexist language

Dummy subjects
We, us
We use we and us to refer to different groups of people, but always including the speaker. We and us can refer to the speaker + the listener, or the speaker + other people but not the listener, or people in general including the speaker:

We could go and see a film tonight. What do you think? (we = speaker + listener)

Gerald asked us if we’d drive to London and get you. (us/we = speaker + others but not listener you)

Changing diet, rather than dieting, is a healthier alternative. There are changes we should all make. (we = speaker + listener + all other people)
They, them
We use they and them to refer to specific groups of people, things and animals:

The kids are getting on my nerves. They’re making so much noise. Can you tell them to be quiet? I’m trying to work.

A:
Have you seen my keys? I never remember where I’ve left them.

B:
They’re by the front door.

We also use they and them to refer to institutions or authorities, and groups of people in general:

I heard they’re going to publish a new edition of ‘War and Peace’.

They’re opening the new motorway tomorrow.

 

 

We use pronouns to refer to possession and ‘belonging’. There are two types: possessive pronouns and possessive determiners. We use possessive determiners before a noun. We use possessive pronouns in place of a noun:

 

We can use a possessive pronoun instead of a noun phrase:

Her coat is grey, mine is brown.
Whose coat is this? Is it yours?

We can use possessive pronouns after of.

Susan is one of my friends.
or
Susan is a friend of mine.

 

’s is not used with the possessive pronoun its. It’s means ‘it is’:

The team is proud of its ability to perform consistently well.

Not: … proud of it’s ability …

 

When do we use the relative pronouns who, which, whose and that?When do we use the relative pronouns who, which, whose and that?who → when we talk about people
which → when we talk about things
whose → instead of his/her or their
We also use that for who/which.

 

Personal pronouns self/selves pronounsI myselfyou yourselfhe himselfshe herselfit itselfwe ourselvesyou yourselvesthey themselves

 

 

 

 



Fontes:
https://www.grammarly.com/blog/pronouns/
https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/pronouns https://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/pronouns/pronouns-personal-i-me-you-him-it-they-etc

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