Grammar, Vocabulary

O que são as Tag questions?

Tag questions – também chamadas de Question tags ou Tag endings – são perguntas curtas que vêm no final de frases. Muitas vezes, são usadas para checar se algo é verídico, ou para pedir confirmação de algo. Seria algo semelhante ao nosso “não é?”.

Perceba que, diferente de uma pergunta simples de YES or NO, como “Can you speak Thai?” [“Você fala tailandês?”], é como se você já tivesse uma informação prévia, mas duvida se está correta. Primeiro, afirma-se ou nega-se algo, porém depois acrescenta o “não é?” ao final da frase: “You can speak Thai, can’t you?” [“Você fala tailandês, não é?”],

A primeira coisa que precisamos saber é que, se a primeira parte da frase dita for afirmativa, a question tag será negativa, e o contrário também ocorre. Veja alguns exemplos:   “” ‘’ –

  • They’ve visited London, haven’t they?”  [“Eles já visitaram Londres, não é?”]
  • You liked my book, didn’t you?”  [“”Você gostou do meu livro, não gostou?“”]
  • She doesn’t eat red meat, does she?”  [“”Ela não come carne vermelha, come?“”]
  • Brazilians don’t trust politicians, do they?”  [“Os brasileiros não confiam nos políticos, confiam?”]

Parece bem simples, mas o que confunde um pouco os alunos é em relação à tradução: diferente do português, o que está no tag ending não é o verbo propriamente dito da pergunta, mas o verbo auxiliar – e aí é que mora o perigo! (Sugiro que você confira nosso post sobre Auxiliary verbs)

 

 

 

Embora haja didn’t you na tag ending, o verbo auxiliar do não aparece na parte inicial. Subentende-se que é You did like my book, didn’t you? (Repare que Did you like my book? não levaria tag question. Deu para entender?) É preciso tomar muito cuidado com isso, para não correr o risco de acabar dizendo algo como You support Flamengo, support? ou You liked my book, liked?, o que estaria completamente errado. Seria mais um caso de “português em inglês”, aquilo que tanto tento combater.

Resolvi dar uma espiada no livro Practical English Usage, de Michael Swan (Oxford University Press), e vi que o assunto ocupa bastante espaço e é dividido em várias seções, a saber: com verbos auxiliares; sentido e entonação; solicitações; pontos avançados que incluem aren’t I?; imperativos; let’s; there; palavras negativas; nothing/nobody/somebody etc.; non-auxiliary have; question tags do mesmo sentido (same-way); ellipsis… Esse Michael Swan!

 

When a question gets added to the end of a declarative statement, it is called a “tag ending” or a “tag question.” We use tag endings when we want confirmation for something or when we want to get a reply, like when we ask, “What do you think?” or “Is this correct?” An easy way to identify a tag ending is to remember that the question is “tagged” onto the end of the sentence.

Here are some examples of sentences with a tag ending:
The Yankees have a game tonight, don’t they?
Jay plays the guitar, doesn’t he?
You’re learning a lot, aren’t you?
The basic format of a tag question is a subject (Yankees, Jay, you), a main or auxiliary verb (have, plays, learning), and a question asked after a comma (don’t they, doesn’t he, aren’t you). The question must contain a pronoun that matches with the main subject of the sentence.

You can also phrase the tag question with an existential “there” or “it.” For example:

There’s going to be a storm tonight, isn’t there?
It’s going to rain a lot, isn’t it?
Positive and Negative Tags
A tag question can be in two different formats: a positive statement with a negative tag or a negative statement with a positive tag. First, you use the verb to identify if the declarative statement is positive or negative. There are positive and negative verbs and auxiliary verbs in a sentence. An auxiliary verb will likely appear in the tag ending.

If the verb or auxiliary verb is positive during the first part of the statement, then the tag ending must be negative. If the start of the sentence is negative, then the tag ending must be positive.

Some examples of negative sentences with positive tag endings:
Jack doesn’t like the Yankees, does he?
You aren’t sleeping, are you?
The words “doesn’t” and “aren’t” are used to describe the action (not liking the Yankees, not sleeping). Each one is followed by the positive version of the word (does, are).

Some examples of positive sentences with negative tag endings:
Wyzant is very educational, isn’t it?
You speak Spanish, don’t you?
In the first example, “is” makes the sentence positive, while “isn’t” makes the tag ending negative. In the second example, the declarative statement, “You speak Spanish” is positive, while the word “don’t” creates the negative tag ending. If you wanted to make the second example a negative statement with a positive tag ending, then it would read, “You don’t speak Spanish, do you?”

 

SPECIAL CASES

Em frases afirmativas, a Tag Ending fica negativa, e é construída de acordo com o tempo verbal interrogativo, veja:

They will make it on time, won’t they?
That was a great history, wasn’t it?

Em frases afirmativas, que contém palavras de sentido negativo, como: seldom, hardly, never, etc. A Tag Ending fica afirmativa.

She never goes, does she?

Em frases negativas, a Tag Ending fica afirmativa:

They won’t make it on time, will they?
That wasn’t a great history, was it?

Veja algumas variações:
I am – aren’t I?
This/that is – isn’t it?
These/those are – aren’t they?

Atenção usando pronomes, para:
Nothing – it
Someone/somebody/no one/nobody – they

Onde está “He seldom goes out on wekends, doesn’t he?”
Correto é:”He seldom goes out on wekends, does he?”

“One should always be polite, shouldn’t ____?”
“One should always be polite, shouldn’t they?”

Então, quando “one” for usado desta forma, o tag question é com “they”.

“” ‘’ –

INTONATION

Statements are normally said with falling intonation. Yes / Noquestions are normally said with rising intonation. The intonationof tag endings is different from both of these.
In tag questions, the tag endings (for example, isn’t he?, is he?,hadn’t they?, can he? ) have two different intonations:

falling intonation  and   rising intonation

The intonation (falling / rising) of the tag endings is in additionto the intonation of the statement to which the tag ending is attached.This means that after the normal intonation (falling) of the statement,there will be the intonation of the tag ending (falling or rising):
Question 4 is difficult,isn’t it?
Question 4 is difficult, isn’t it?

The falling or rising intonation of the tag endings communicatesdifferent information.

Tag EndingswithFalling Intonation
When someone asks a tag question and the question tag has fallingintonation, the person who asks the questions is fairly sure thatthe statement before the tag ending is correct. Because the personasking the question is not 100% sure, however, he or she stillwants confirmation.
Example:
I think a question is difficult and want to know if you feel thesame way, so I say
Q: Question 4 is difficult, isn’t it?A: Yes, it’s difficult. / No, it isn’t difficult. / I don’t know.
Q: Question 4 isn’t difficult, is it?A: Yes, it’s difficult. / No, it isn’t difficult. / I don’t know.

Tag EndingswithRising Intonation
When someone asks a tag question and the tag has risingintonation, the person who asks the question is much less surethat the statement before the tag ending is correct. However,he or she still wants confirmation:
Example:
I think I have the answer for question 4 but am not very sure.I want to see if you agree with me (or if you will tell me whatthe answer is), so I say
Q: Question 4 is difficult, isn’t it?A: Yes, it’s difficult. / No, it isn’t difficult. / I don’t know.
Q: Question 4 isn’t difficult, is it?A: Yes, it’s difficult. / No, it isn’t difficult. / I don’t know.

____________________________________________________

Remember:
The answers for tag questions are the true answers. They mayor may not be the expected answers.
Examples:
Q: Dave Sperling isn’t married, is he?A: Yes, he’s married. His wife’s name is Dao.
Q: Dave Sperling has two sons, doesn’t he?A: No. He has one son and one daughter.

 isn’t it?



Fontes:

http://www.eslcafe.com/grammar/tag_questions03.html https://www.englishexperts.com.br/forum/tag-ending-t32581.html http://www.teclasap.com.br/tag-questions-explicacao-exemplos-e-traducao/ https://www.wyzant.com/resources/lessons/english/esl/verbs/verbs-endings

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