Grammar, Vocabulary

ENGLISH ADVERBS: definição e tipos

Pergunta: você sabe identificar o que e quais são os advérbios de uma frase?

Link Frequency adverbsFrequency adverbs   =>    Guys, a dica de gramática de hoje será sobre advérbios. Antes de tudo, advérbios são palavras que acompanham e modificam um verbo, adjetivo ou ainda substantivo. For example, posso dizer que algo é bonito (adjetivo), e depois usar um advérbio para aumentar essa qualidade: “muito bonito”.

 

1. The adverbs and the adjectives in English1. The adverbs and the adjectives in EnglishAdjectives tell us something about a person or a thing. Adjectives can modify nouns (here: girl) or pronouns (here: she).
Adverbs tell us in what way someone does something. Adverbs can modify verbs (here: drive), adjectives or other adverbs.
adjective adverbMandy is a careful girl. Mandy drives carefully.She is very careful.She drives carefully.Mandy is a careful driver. This sentence is about Mandy, the driver, so use the adjective.
Mandy drives carefully. This sentence is about her way of driving, so use the adverb.
2. FormAdjective + -ly
adjective adverbdangerous dangerouslycareful carefullynice nicelyhorrible horriblyeasy easilyelectronic electronicallyIrregular forms:
adjective adverbgood wellfast fasthard hardIf the adjective ends in -y, change -y to -i. Then add -ly:
happy – happilybut:
shy – shylyIf the adjective ends in -le, the adverb ends in -ly:
terrible – terriblyIf the adjective ends in -e, then add -ly:
safe – safely► Not all words ending in -ly are adverbs:
adjectives ending in -ly: friendly, silly, lonely, uglynouns, ending in -ly: ally, bully, Italy, melancholyverbs, ending in -ly: apply, rely, supplyThere is no adverb for an adjective ending in -ly.
3. Use of adverbs3.1. to modify verbsThe handball team played badly last Saturday.
3.2. to modify adjectivesIt was an extremely bad match.
3.3. to modify adverbsThe handball team played extremely badly last Wednesday.
3.4. to modify quantitiesThere are quite a lot of people here.
3.5. to modify sentencesUnfortunately, the flight to Dallas had been cancelled.
4. Types of adverbs4.1. Adverbs of mannerquicklykindly4.2. Adverbs of degreeveryrather4.3. Adverbs of frequencyoftensometimes4.4. Adverbs of timenowtoday4.5. Adverbs of placeherenowhere5. How do know whether to use an adjective or an adverb?John is a careful driver. – In this sentences we say how John is – careful. If we want to say that the careful John did not drive the usual way yesterday – we have to use the adverb:
John did not drive carefully yesterday.Here is another example:
I am a slow walker. (How am I? → slow → adjective)I walk slowly. (How do I walk? → slowly → adverb)6. Adjective or Adverb after special verbsBoth adjectives and adverbs may be used after look, smell and taste. Mind the change in meaning.
Here are two examples:
adjective adverbThe pizza tastes good.(How is the pizza?) Jamie Oliver can taste well.(How can Jamie Oliver taste?)Peter’s feet smell bad.(How are his feet?) Peter can smell badly.(How can Peter smell?)Do not get confused with good/well.
Linda looks good. (What type of person is she?)Linda looks well. (How is Linda? – She may have been ill, but now she is fit again.)How are you? – I’m fine, thank you./I’m good. (emotional state)How are you? – I’m well, thank you. (physical state)One can assume that in the second/third sentence the adverb well is used, but this is wrong – well can be an adjective (meaning fit/healthy), or an adverb of the adjective good.
Conclusion:Use the adjective when you say something about the person itself.Use the adverb, when you want to say about the action.

 

 

 

 

 

Adverbs: uses
Adverbs are one of the four major word classes, along with nouns, verbs and adjectives. We use adverbs to add more information about a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a clause or a whole sentence and, less commonly, about a noun phrase.

Can you move it carefully? It’s fragile.

Quickly! We’re late.

She swims really well.

Don’t go so fast.

You have to turn it clockwise.

Come over here.

Actually, I don’t know her.

I haven’t seen them recently.

The bathroom’s upstairs on the left.
Adverbs: meanings and functions
Adverbs have many different meanings and functions. They are especially important for indicating the time, manner, place, degree and frequency of something.

time

I never get up early at the weekends.

manner

Walk across the road carefully!

place

When we got there, the tickets had sold out.

degree

It’s rather cold, isn’t it?

frequency

I’m always losing my keys.

 

Time, place and manner adverbs (early, there, slowly)
Time adverbs
Time adverbs tell us about when something happens.

already

lately

still

tomorrow

early

now

soon

yesterday

finally

recently

today

yet

Have you seen Laurie today?

I’d prefer to leave early.

I went to the cinema on my own recently.

There’s been an increase in house burglary lately.

See also:

Adverb phrases

Already, still or yet?

Place adverbs
Place adverbs tell us about where something happens or where something is.

There was somebody standing nearby.

Is that your scarf there?

You go upstairs and do your homework. I’ll come up in a minute.

Manner adverbs
Manner adverbs tell us about the way something happens or is done.

accurately

beautifully

expertly

professionally

anxiously

carefully

greedily

quickly

badly

cautiously

loudly

quietly

Manner adverbs are often formed from adjectives by adding -ly:

She spoke very loudly. We could all hear what she was saying.

We waited anxiously by the phone.

We walked up the stairs very quietly because Mum and Dad were asleep.

Some common manner adverbs have the same form as adjectives and they have similar meanings (e.g. fast, right, wrong, straight, tight).

adjective

adverb

I was never a fast swimmer

Driving fast is dangerous

All of your answers were wrong.

People always spell my name wrong.

Is that the right time?

That builder never does anything right!

My hair is straight.

Let’s go straight to the airport.
Degree adverbs (slightly) and focusing adverbs (generally)
Degree and focusing adverbs are the most common types of modifiers of adjectives and other adverbs. Degree adverbs express degrees of qualities, properties, states, conditions and relations. Focusing adverbs point to something.

Degree adverbs
absolutely

enough

perfectly

somewhat

a (little) bit

entirely

pretty

terribly

a lot

extremely

quite

too

almost

fairly

rather

totally

awfully

highly

remarkably

utterly

completely

lots

slightly

very

Mary will be staying a bit longer. (a bit longer = for a little more time)

It all happened pretty quickly.

She was quite surprised they came, actually.

It was £3.52 if you want to be totally accurate.

Focusing adverbs
especially

just

mainly

particularly

generally

largely

only

simply

I just wanted to ask you what you thought.

I wouldn’t particularly like to move to a modern house.

See also:

Adverbs
Evaluative adverbs (surprisingly) and viewpoint adverbs (personally)
We put some adverbs outside the clause. They modify the whole sentence or utterance. Evaluative and viewpoint adverbs are good examples of this:

The electric car, surprisingly, does not really offer any advantages over petrol cars. (evaluative)

Personally, I think the show was great. (viewpoint)
Linking adverbs (then, however)
Linking adverbs show a relationship between two clauses or sentences (e.g. a sequence in time, cause and effect, contrast between two things):

I left my house in the morning
[sequence]
then
I went to pick up Leanne at her house.

[cause]
We talked until the early hours
and
[effect]
consequently I overslept the next morning
. (the result of the late night is that I was late the next morning)

The sun will be shining in France.
[contrast]
However
, heavy rain is expected in Spain.

Warning:
We can use then and consequently to join clauses or sentences. We usually use but not however to connect two clauses in the same sentence:

There was no room for them but they got on the train.

There was no room for them. However, they got on the train.

 

Adverb phrases: forms
An adverb phrase consists of one or more words. The adverb is the head of the phrase and can appear alone or it can be modified by other words. Adverbs are one of the four major word classes, along with nouns, verbs and adjectives.

In the examples the adverb phrases are in bold. The other words that modify the adverb are underlined:

We usually go on holiday in August.

Time goes very quickly.

The day passed quickly enough.

This works really well for its size.

Luckily for us, the cost was not so high.

We kept the new money quite separately from what we’d already collected.

In general, these patterns are similar to adjective phrases.

See also:

Adjective phrases
Adverb phrases: types and meanings
An adverb phrase can consist of one adverb or an adverb plus other words before it (premodification) or after it (postmodification). Adverb phrases have many different meanings.

In the examples the adverb phrases are in bold. The other words that modify the adverb are underlined.

example

type

used to give information about

We walked very carefully across the floor.

manner

how something happens

Here is where I was born.

That’s it. Right there.

place

where something happens

Dad got home very late.

time

when something happens

This pill will take away the pain temporarily.

duration

how long something happens

They almost never invite people to their house these days.

frequency

how often something happens

A:
Want some sugar in your coffee?

B:
Only half a spoon, please.

focusing

something specific

That dog behaves incredibly stupidly!

degree

how much or to what degree something happens

The train will probably be late.

It doesn’t necessarily mean that.

certainty or necessity

how certain or necessary something is

Unfortunately for me, I can’t speak Italian.

evaluative

the speaker’s opinion of something

Personally, I don’t see why the party has to start so early.

viewpoint

the speaker’s perspective or reaction

It rained very heavily this summer. Therefore, many of the vegetables were very small.

linking

relationships between clauses and sentences

See also:

Adverbs: types
Adverb phrases: functions
Adverb phrases + verbs
We use adverb phrases most commonly to modify verbs. In the examples the adverb phrases are in bold. The verbs that they modify are underlined:

Children grow up really quickly.

I exercise very regularly and I eat quite healthily.

Adverb phrases + be
We use adverb phrases with be. This is especially typical of adverbs of place:

I’m upstairs. I’ll only be a minute.

A:
Have you seen my gloves?

B:
They’re right there, on the table.

Adverb phrases + adjectives/adverbs
We use adverb phrases (adv) to modify adjectives and other adverbs:

I found it
[ADV]
extremely

[adjective]
difficult to talk to her
.

He drives
[ADV]
really

[ADV]
carefully
.

 

Adverb phrases + other phrases
We use adverb phrases (adv) to modify noun phrases (np) and prepositional phrases:

That’s
[ADV]
quite

[NP]
a tree
. (it’s a tree that is special in some way, e.g. it’s very big)

There was
[ADV]
hardly

[pronoun]
anyone
at the concert.

We climbed
[ADV]
right

[prepositional phrase]
over the top of the hill
and down again.

Adverb phrases + determiners
We use adverb phrases to modify determiners, especially words like all, some, half, many (quantifiers):

Only half of my friends could come to my party.

Very few people have heard of my city. It’s very small.

 


 

Fontes:

https://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/adverbien.htm

https://dictionary.cambridge.org/pt/gramatica/gramatica-britanica/about-adjectives-and-adverbs/adverbs

Manual Compacto de Gramática da Língua Inglesa. Giovana Teixeira Campos. 1ª ed. São Paulo: Rideel, 2010. Capítulo 11

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